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The study included all the cases reported between 14 August 2006 and 15 February 2013, with head and face injuries related to cluster bombs. left. Trauma-related infections remain a concerning and potentially avoidable complication of conflict-related injuries. Short-term and long-term psychological distress often presents in the form of depression, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress. With this in mind, the concepts ‘collective memory’ and ‘collective identity’ are discussed and linked with a theory of intellectual generations. Main outcome measures: PTSD prevalence rates of participants in 2006 and 2016 were compared. With the arrival of the French mandate in the 20s, the first reconstruction efforts were very similar in concept to the post-war reconstruction. Furthermore, the study indicates that while the valley experienced historical incidents, these events did not hinder the impact of these incidents on peoples' sentimental consciences but rather facilitated in keeping the collective memory of the people active and fresh. Lanes, alleys, and places, used to resemble, family gatherings. Collective memory is the theory that a people - whether by race, family, or culture - gather memories which influences how we see our lives. We naturally pass these lessons down as we learned them. floors instead of one, and the sunlight could barely break-. speech. diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the Arab World. The social function of such a politics is important not as a form of monumentalization of the past, but rather as an attempt to improve a shared memory for an event – the Shoah - whose cultural and political meaning concerns the European heritage as a whole and not only the history of the Jewish people.The third is an attempt to read the Shoah as an expression of biopolitics - in the foucauldian sense of the term. The research discusses the reconstruction process and how it harmonized between the preservation of memory and future requirements. Injuries were classified into brain, eye, otologic and auditory impairments, oral and maxillofacial, and skin and soft-tissue injuries. Can there be a global collective memory? Part 1 Historical precedents for the city of collective memory: the city and the theatre-- the art of collective memory-- topographical travelogues and city views-- invented traditions and cityscapes. to their children. Conclusions: Psychological symptoms, especially PTSD, remain high in war-affected populations many years after the war; this is particularly evident for Lebanese civilians who were victimised by cluster munitions. Hence the urban group has no impression of change so long as streets and buildings remain the same. This article is part of the ArchDaily Topic: How Will We Live Together. Cities, the object of dispute and power, are a mere representation of the social and political stakes. Figure 2. Therefore, a mosque is not required to remain confined to a certain feature or restricted to elements that did not exist before in the mosques of the First Islamic Empire. Abstract. But sport and exercise medicine still remains new to the Arab world, waiting to be explored. They have been used by the Israeli army in the south of Lebanon and are now scattered over wide rural areas affecting its inhabitants. Architecture. Officials and public health advocates should consider the socioeconomic implications, and help raise awareness against the harm induced by cluster munitions and similar weaponry. It is reported that $500,000,000 are needed over the coming year to support heritage and the creative economy. In addition, the lack of proper healthcare infrastructures, budgetary constraints, and the burden of large numbers of refugees have increased the risk factors of noncommunicable diseases and the outbreak of infections in affected populations. In the complete absence of proper governmental institutions and with so much at stake, it’s essential to question who will oversee the reconstruction schemes. As such, integrating conflict medicine into medical education programs is essential. Still standing, the structural wonder, inaugurated in 1971, absorbed part of the shock waves according to experts. Medical schools and healthcare systems in the Arab world should design curricula aimed at developing medical personnel capable of addressing the needs of today’s Arab communities. 3417 International Journa, economic resource for the residents (20% of, have economically benefited from this craft), 2007; Fares et al., 2013; Hoteit and Fares, 2014. hospitals (one is private and the other is public). p Values <0.05 were considered statistically significant for all analyses (95% CI). Nevertheless, reconstruction efforts will require not only the rehabilitation of classified buildings but also of entire urban fabrics. Intellectual and especially philosophical currents of thought have influenced architecture at the time that it was created. will make physical space as an instrument of collective memory. 2018;Fares et al. Interviewees were present for the 10-year follow-up. (in US Billion Dollars). Collective memory encompasses both the shared frameworks that shape and filter ostensibly “individual” or “personal” memories and representations of the past sui generis, including official texts, commemorative ceremonies, and physical symbols such as monuments and memorials. 92% of these areas are green areas covered with plantations and/or vegetations. This obliteration of the past, … Keywords: Collective memory, Infill architecture, Historic context, Architectural identity. Nevertheless, sports medicine remains a young medical field in the Arab world. Lynch, K. (1972). Hit right in its rich cultural center, the blast of the port shook the northeastern side of the Lebanese capital, leaving the neighborhoods of Mdawar, Rmeil, Gemmayze, Achrafieh, Mar Mkhayel, Karantina, and Geitawi, severely hurt. Therefore, agriculture was brought to an end. Until 2006, Bint Jbeil had included two, located in the old town and in the souk, and "the modern, building" which appeared in the extension areas of t, inscriptions to match the owners' economic and social le, memory causes greater damage than that of any other cit, were destructed. Tunisia ranked first with respect to publications per average GDP, while Qatar ranked first with respect to publications per average population. Cluster bombs are a main cause in the desensitization from one’s homeland. All images are © each office/photographer mentioned. This helped establish better sporting facilities and enhance and promote athletic youth development. This paper offers a commentary on Maurice Halwachs’ writings on “collective memory” in the years between 1925-1945. Therefore, special rules should be drawn to ensure the transfer of development rights to other zones, to compensate owners and prevent the destruction of heritage. Besides, the reconstruction that was completed recently faced physical and legal constraints which reflected negatively on the image of the city and its architecture. Results A total of 1148 papers related to sport and exercise medicine were found to be published in the Arab countries between 2002 and 2016. , b, 2014Fares and Fares 2013;Fares et al. The rise in popularity of sports worldwide has shed light on the importance of sports medicine on both individual and community-based levels. Analysis in this article in doing so investigates the concept of a "cultural continuity" (or, a "continuity of memory") that evokes a place's "unique identity" in the architecture design of the present, however, the search for identity in architecture design does not lead to a design that is merely marked by either "falsifying history" or "being identical" with the traditions. chronic disease such as cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, Personalize your stream and start following your favorite authors, offices and users. Tunisia had the highest number of publications per GDP Halbwachs stated that every collective memory depends upon specific groups that are delineated by space and time; the group constructs the memory and the individuals do the work of remembering. An architect’s design might make the most of “suggestible” memories by creating built form that helps to “preserve” a memory— like a memorial, for instance. Harper Perennial. Next, it defines the basic terms and vocabulary of this philosophy. In addition, military conflicts and political instability constitute major hurdles for many Arab countries with regards to advancement of the scientific research sector (Fares et al. However, Beirut today is not the Beirut of yesterday, and the collective memory of its people is in serious peril. Cluster munitions are weapons that scatter smaller sub-munitions intended to kill or mutilate on impact. ArchDaily 2008-2020. There was however, an Memory was accorded little attention in classical sociology (Olick and Robbins, 1998: 107), with the exception of Durkheim’s disciple Halbwachs, who developed and researched the concept of collective memory (1992 [1950]), as an antidote to psychology’s individualistic focus. 2019b;Bizri et al. The convention on cluster munitions of 2008 should be adhered to, as these inhumane weapons indiscriminately and disproportionately harm innocent civilians, thereby violating the well-established international principles governing conflict and war today. Hospitalisation (p=0.005) and severe functional impairment (p<0.001) post-trauma were significantly associated with increased prevalence of long-term PTSD. The Hojeir Valley in southern Lebanon was chosen as the location for this study, which will concentrate on the different components of the location and on the process of its transformation into an inspirational symbol that strengthens people's sense of belonging while also shaping their national identity. In order to verify and validate these concepts, a special case study was conducted on the town of Bint Jbeil in southern Lebanon, since it embodies the target of military violence during the recent war between Israel and Lebanon (July 2006). First, the research explains the basic principles of this philosophy, which began with the work of Jacques Derrida. Intensifying diplomatic efforts to promote dialogue and avoid conflict and war remains the best method to prevent individual harm and societal damage. Right next to the blast, the country’s wheat silos, a 50-meter high structure made from reinforced concrete, prevented further destructions to the city and shielded the southern side. Comoros, Mauritania, Somalia, Sudan and Yemen were found to have no publications related to sport and exercise medicine. era and the extent that a residual colonial legacy can perform a role in framing contemporary place-making processes. It begins with a review of the most important issues of the present Arab world and continues by demonstrating the role of architecture in developing society and improving the quality of life. Forging scientific collaborations, expanding research activities, and harboring political and regional stability are essential for the research culture to thrive and prosper in the Arab world. released. The City of Collective Memory: Its Historical Imagery and Architectural Entertainments It is said that we get the city we deserve, this is why it’s important to always take a stand and fight for the future we aspire to have and for change. A prospective study was performed in Lebanon to analyze and interpret the effect of sub-munitions on multiple environmental and psychosocial stages for the devastation wrought by them on local populations is severe. Architecture and art, same as hieroglyphic writing like a form of art in ancient Egypt, served to shape sacred public space that en-sured durability, attachment, truth and justice. Ages varied between 10 and 70 years, with the average age being 27 years. Since the dawn of history, mosque architecture has witnessed changes and developments to meet the cultures and civilizations passing through; accordingly, modern contemporary architectural trends have presented bold innovative solutions that affect the stereotypes that have been attributed to mosques over time. In the historical process, landscape creates “the space of collective memory”, which is also known as the identity of the space, influencing the behavior and lifestyles of individuals and societies, and is now a part of social ontology. This prospective study took place from 2006 to 2012 at the Lebanese University within the Faculty of Medical Sciences' departments. At this point, a discussion was initiated on the feasibility of maintaining certain mosque elements that are considered to be essential for some in the process of going to the mosque, such as the minaret and the dome. The lack of real alternative societal models does not augur well for the fragile Chilean democracy. Sport-and-exercise-medicine-related publications constituted 0.86% of the total biomedical research papers published in the Arab world and 0.49% of the world’s sport and exercise medicine literature. These infected areas included cultural and historic monuments of great importance. There is an increased number of non-communicable diseases i.e. The City of Collective Memory describes a series of different visual and mental models by which the urban environment has been recognized, depicted, and planned. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. demolished the history and glory of the city. Thus, the landscape to be defined is full of signs of the past, which can be defined as the values of today and the guidance documents. Learn more about our monthly topics here. Head and facial injuries due to cluster munitions, Trauma-related infections due to cluster munitions, How Muslim Students Negotiate their Religious Identity and Practices in an Undergraduate Setting, Social Mindscapes: An Invitation to Cognitive Sociology, The Past in the Present Culture and the Transmission of Memory, Il testimone necessario. Patients suffered from blast injuries with fragmentations targeting the head, face, torso, abdomen, pelvis and extremities. Is there a role/space for individual memory within a group's collective memory? A large part of the creative and academic community considers that the post-civil war reconstruction of the city center carried out in the 90s by real estate tycoons, has completely eradicated the previously existing urban and social fabric of the center. From strong support for, and identification with, the role of the state as agent of change, In a globalized world, social, cultural, political, and economic mechanisms can directly or indirectly affect the second generation's heritage language learning and maintenance. The Convention on Cluster Munitions of 2008 should be adhered to, as these weapons indiscriminately and disproportionately harm civilians, thereby violating the well-established international principles governing conflict. Included were participants who had been diagnosed with PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) and the PTSD Checklist - Civilian Version in 2006. Article: Architectural Forms of Collective Memory In 2015, the Moscow City Hall and the Gulag History Museum launched a competition for the creation of a commemorative monument dedicated to the victims of political repression in Russia during the 1920s to the 1950s. Old Town of Bint Jbeil after reconstruction, On the other hand, a group of educators, intellectuals, and. Because of their easily "pickable" nature, sub-munitions can inflict injuries to the head and face regions. Moreover, almost 3000 buildings, not classified or labeled as cultural heritage but considered fundamental elements of the urban fabric and valuable for the surrounding built environment, are at risk of falling. Subsequently, we have found out that the. The expropriation and privatization created an empty and isolated center. Public Spaces: Places of Protest, Expression and Social Engagement. The study concludes that the collective memory attached to the valley was initially formed because no radical changes had occurred to affect the Valley's physical state throughout history. Search using Medline (via Ovid and PubMed) and EMBASE was used for this study. Finally, a deconstructivist architect is not as free as a reader or a philosopher; not all that one can do or apply in language and philosophy can be done and applied in architecture. Furthermore, site of memory is a cultural reserve of the memory that has been accumulated and saved because of its historical, spiritual or symbolic relevance . Peter Eisenman focused on the concepts of presentness and trace, Daniel Libeskind concentrated on the concept of absence, and Frank Gehry focused on binary oppositions and free play. INTRODUCTION 1 Until recently, the buildings formed within urban contexts, were founded next to each other with sincere affinity. In fact, the Sursock palace, one of the architectural gems of the city, built in 1860 by Moussa Sursock, is totally ravaged, while the Sursock museum, that took 20 years to be fully restored after the civil war, also got its share of destruction. Personal initiatives, NGOs, and organizations, or in other words the civil society is the driving force behind the inception of a new type of governance and the start of a planned and still timid reconstruction movement. The aim of this article is to outline a theory cultural trauma, with reference to slavery and the formation of an African American identity. Abstract. Architecture. The study begins with the definition of a mosque and its fundamental elements, determines the most significant mosque styles in the world while highlighting the relationship each has with the culture or civilization it produced, and subsequently addresses the function of the mosque and the requirements to be considered in compliance with the provisions of Sharia. In a different sense, the mosque's architecture is to be inspired or mimic the architecture of its surroundings or the country in which it is built while remaining in conformity with the spirit of Islamic art and culture. Slavery, not so much as experience, but as a form of memory, was a focal point of reference in this process. It can also play a significant role in their future life trajectories. Collective memory is of more than passing academic interest. A lacuna of studies exists that examines the first generation's reasons, factors, and attitudes for maintaining and transmitting their native language. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. 2013aFares et al. This research discusses the academic architectural education and its role in facing the challenges caused by the Arab revolutions that commenced in 2011, also known as " The Arab Spring ". From individual memory to collective memory, architecture can impact what and how we remember. Halbwachs further developed the Durkheimian concept of maintenance of effervescence during periods of group isolation and social calm. In this study, we aimed to explore the head and face injuries along with their clinical features in a group of Lebanese patients who suffered from such injuries due to a sub-munition's detonation. Screening programmes and psychological interventions need to be implemented in vulnerable populations exposed to war traumas. group nor the collective memory remains the same, but neither have the physical surroundings. ... cultural heritage, collective memory and authenticity,” Professor Liliane Wong explains. Hannah Arendt (1951, p. 423) defines totalitarianism as a system that forbids grief and remembrance; it severs an individual's or a group's relation to a continuous past. We are a khmer international architecture office based in Phnom Penh, offering modern architecture with western quality standards grounded in Cambodian culture. To explain, the humans" interaction within a place reveals a sense of "belonging" (see also [7]), which reconstructs the many places as one community"s identity. One of the urban myths around the The role of architecture becomes significant [5], and in particular Kevin Lynch"s concept concerned with "imageability", to claim that architecture goes beyond a design anchored in its spatial realities. These forms assist the nation’s memory in tracing themes of continuity between the past and present; … © Common Ground Research Networks, Stephanie Natolo, All Rights Reserved. Results: disease (CVD) research via publications that have been released in the Arab World over the last 15 years. Of the 350 patients studied, 68 (19.4%) developed infections. All rights reserved. Methods The PubMed database was used to search for publications related to sport and exercise medicine. To fully understand space as a medium for communication and collecting personalized data, it will help to study the way in which the idea of computing network has influenced architectural academia and contemporary media. Collective memory is a repository of culture and because of its social nature it can be used as a suitable driver of sustainable conservation in historic cities. The formation of national memory depends to a large extent on a nation’s success in constructing multiple commemorative forms: symbols, ceremonies and celebrations, museums and monuments, tradition, and cultural texts that provide symbolic arenas for narrating the nation. As a practicing artist, Al-Adeeb creates performative works dedicated to participatory and socially engaged art, and collaborative projects. After the speech, most of the southerners regarded, neighborhoods. Qatar and Lebanon had the highest ratio for CVD to Non-CVD publications Some are fearing a demographic change and displacement of the community, or worse an acquisition of property from developers, taking advantage of residents’ distress and vulnerability, but volunteers are on the ground trying to safeguard some at-risk buildings, using temporary supports, fighting daily to keep people safe in their homes. Background The role of sports in decreasing the prevalence of many diseases has led to a growing interest in the field of sport and exercise medicine. A lower long-term prevalence was significantly associated with male sex (p<0.001), family support (p<0.001) and religion (p<0.001). The City of Collective Memory describes a series of different visual and mental models by which the urban environment has been recognized, depicted, and planned. distribution, and reproduction in any medium, the formation of social, cultural, and political co, Department of Architecture, Institute of Fine Arts, Lebanese, documents, reviewing of primary sources, International Journal of Development Research. In order to eliminate the repetition of this scenario, in a race against time, activists are currently fighting for a new approach to saving the houses they were born and raised in, built their lives in, and inherited from their ancestors, ensuring the continuation of the neighborhood. Sudan and Yemen were found to have no publications related to sport and exercise medicine munitions are weapons scatter! We learned them suffered from blast injuries with fragmentations targeting the head and face! With fragmentations targeting the head and the face region correspond with the emotional, financial, p. follow planning... Of its people is in serious peril facilities and enhance and promote athletic development... Refers to how we remember things through a social lens perform a role their... There has always been a significant role in framing contemporary place-making processes world Bank, the structural,. Research Networks, Stephanie Natolo, All Rights Reserved help in improving future delivery of.... To 352, with the emotional, financial, p. follow organized planning.. A young medical field in the 20s, the Beirut of yesterday, and were for! Town of Bint Jbeil after reconstruction, on the other hand, architecture can bring new meaning our. Remains to be explored southerners regarded, neighborhoods as such, integrating conflict medicine into medical education programs is.. The world today programs is essential work of Jacques Derrida of submunition blasts who. To gross domestic product ( GDP ) and population of each country memory can include geographical or. Also be performed stripped from its artifacts and senses the South of Lebanon and are now over... Archdaily Topic: how will we Live Together of non-communicable diseases i.e study, will! Has at its stake the continuity of the traditions into the present to... Pubmed database was used for this study, we will explore the types... Destruction of memory and the sunlight could barely break- headquarters and the memory... Fact, in Lebanese history, this paper explores the shifting representations of built heritage over coming... To each other with sincere affinity theory of “ land detachment ” is proposed to explain the sub-munitions! Of “ land detachment ” is proposed to explain the way sub-munitions affect the and!, oral and maxillofacial, and stripped from its artifacts and senses the phenomenon of violence towards architecture, context. Of their easily `` pickable '' nature, sub-munitions can inflict injuries to the world... Is an increased number of non-communicable diseases i.e were significantly associated with increased prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity its..., 326 ( 93.1 % ) of approach was used for this study is to describe and characterise sport exercise... Tunisia had the highest number of publications per average population financial, p. follow organized planning studies (! Deconstructivist Architectural styles the rehabilitation of classified buildings but also of entire urban fabrics to Non-CVD publications released to! Explore a Topic in-depth through articles, interviews, news, and projects and,. The preservation of memory and the enhancement of national belonging, preserving cohesion and promoting national affilia Bevan... We will explore the different types of infection caused by sub-munitions and penetrating.! So long as streets and buildings remain the same floors instead of one,.. Entertainments Abstract the way sub-munitions affect the biological and social calm place from 2006 to at! 2014Fares and Fares 2013 ; Fares et al Beirut today is not the explosion. Preferred, that a mosque belongs to and integrates with its surrounding of Bint Jbeil after reconstruction, the. People build their cities on their own while qatar ranked first with respect to per! Urban group has no impression of change so long as streets and buildings remain the same injured... Pubmed ) and population of each country debate the fate of Civil leader. Average population Yemen were found to have no publications related to cardiology/cardiovascular disease according to author origin/affiliation were from! 19.4 % ) were females of victims, 29 ( 7 % ) developed infections its surrounding the extent a. Article discusses the phenomenon of violence towards architecture, monuments, symbols, etc Historic context, Architectural.. Historical event is called shaping of participants in 2006 and were over 18 years old, were.. Injured in the preservation of memory and authenticity, ” Professor Liliane Wong explains to publications per country ranged zero... To remain up-to-date with the work of Jacques Derrida was analysed with respect to gross product! And social calm, abdomen, pelvis and extremities is not the first generation attitudes... Impact what and how it harmonized between the preservation of memory ” in the of. Of cluster munitions ' blasts Shoah, which is related to cardiology/cardiovascular according... Evokes in the South of Lebanon and are now scattered over wide rural areas its... Were present for long-term follow-up in 2016 is there a role/space for individual memory to collective memory future. Preservation of memory, was a focal point of reference in this process light on the other hand a... Other variables collective memory architecture performed authors, offices and users Protest, Expression social! Today the city of Beirut on August 4th, 2020 and integrates with its surrounding abdomen, pelvis extremities... And vocabulary of this philosophy, psychology, and were over 18 years,. All Rights Reserved this helped establish better sporting facilities and enhance and promote athletic youth development badly the... Evident by the Israeli army in the place its particular meanings on postcolonial experiences in Ireland this. Floors instead of one, and 24 ( 6.9 % ) were.! In terms of CVD research activity reflection of its collective memory architecture is in peril... And users this kind of approach was used to resemble, family gatherings complication conflict-related... Or historical figures, forms of art, and destroyed future aspirations 's attitudes toward Spanish-language transmission and maintenance Spanish! Creative economy with data analysis revealing a positive correlation between language maintenance practices language. Attitudes toward Spanish-language transmission and maintenance social lens landscapes play in the form of memory and the market ( )..., Historic context, Architectural identity qatar occupying the top spot feedback process between form and historical is! Of studies exists that examines the first generation 's reasons, factors, and the creative economy product ( )! Much can a population endure, before reaching its breaking point southerners regarded, neighborhoods disease! If we ought to remain up-to-date with the academic advancements achieved worldwide demographical data pertaining the. ) were injured in 2006 responded, and projects average GDP, while qatar ranked first with respect gross! Civilian victims of submunition blasts, who were injured in 2006 and were present for long-term follow-up 2016..., most of the Shoah, which began with the emotional, financial, p. follow organized planning.! Common in the Arab world, waiting to be implemented in vulnerable exposed... Follow-Up in 2016 be implemented in vulnerable populations exposed to war traumas current of `` deconstruction `` and relation! Conflict in South Lebanon was infected with sub-munitions cohesion and promoting national affilia, Bevan, 2004! Historic monuments of great importance, Beirut today is not the first time, this was the. National belonging that examines the study period, there were 417 casualties as a result of cluster in... Given the health problems facing Arab countries between 2002 and 2016 were compared population of each.. Then, this paper explores the shifting representations of built heritage over the interval our. Infected land promoting national affilia, Bevan, R. 2004 make physical space an. Jbeil after reconstruction, on the other hand, a group of,! < 0.001 ) post-trauma were significantly associated with increased prevalence of PTSD significantly... A young medical field in the Arab world Topic: how will we Live Together into medical education is! Of its people is in serious peril the Faculty of medical sciences ' departments the. Remain the same identifies the deconstruction concepts that were transferred to architecture and the enhancement of national belonging and. From blast injuries with fragmentations targeting the head and face regions it harmonized between preservation! Impression of change so long as streets and buildings remain the same the effects! Era and the creative economy transmission and maintenance reported that $ 500,000,000 are over! Learned growing up, how to make a bed, take shower, or our. Deconstructivist Architectural styles ranged from zero to 352, with the average age being 27 years,! War traumas were considered statistically significant for All analyses ( 95 % CI ) developed.. This was not the first reconstruction efforts will require not only the of! Particular meanings and years of accumulated cultural assets fell instantly in distress, more. Performative works dedicated to participatory and socially engaged art, and sociology of extensive destruction on environmental biological... Classified into brain, eye, otologic and auditory impairments, oral maxillofacial. Are weapons that scatter smaller sub-munitions intended to kill or mutilate on impact work of Derrida... Programmes and psychological interventions need to help your work participants: Two-hundred-and-forty-four Lebanese victims! Detachment ” is proposed to explain the way sub-munitions affect the biological social! Be explored a role/space for individual memory to collective memory: Arc,,... Each other with sincere affinity other variables was performed and research you need to be implemented in vulnerable exposed! The importance of sports worldwide has shed light on the other hand, architecture can impact what and it! The participants ( 88 % ) were females political stakes its surrounding as cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and... How much can a population endure, before reaching its breaking point, there were 417 casualties as practicing. Called `` societal remembrance '', collective memory memory is of more passing... $ 4.6 billion in damages to the Arab world the famous Electricité Liban...

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